Pond treatment processes for the treatment of sewage (containing biodegradable wastes) are carried out by specially designed and constructed ponds. These ponds, referred to as stabilization ponds, are large, shallow earthen basins. The treatment process is a natural one involving the combined use of bacteria and algae. The stabilization ponds are classified as aerobic, anaerobic and facultative ponds.

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The particles as such, tend to remain in a fixed position with respect to each other. When flocculated, the whole mass of particles settle as a unit or a zone. In the hindered settling the concentration of particles increases from top to the bottom and this results in the thickening of the sludge. Zone settling is employed in conjunction with biological treatment facilities.


Place a drop of water or specimen on a microscope slide containing algae, gently cover the slide with a coverslip and view under a microscope. Be sure to use a specimen of very small quantity to avoid clumping.

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The organic solids present in the anaerobic zone (bottom sludge) are degraded to dissolved organic compounds (organic acids) and gases such as CO2, CH4 and H2S. The organic acids can be oxidized by the aerobic bacteria while the gases produced (CO2, CH4, H2S, NH3) may be vented to the atmosphere. In fact, most of CO2 is utilized by the algae for photosynthesis, while H2S combines with O2 to form sulfuric acid.


Cell differentiation is particularly importantamong multicellular organisms. It can be argued that this is one of the mostimportant processes that sets multicellular organisms from simple, unicellularorganisms.

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For Nitrogen to be used by different life forms on Earth, it must change into different states. Nitrogen in the atmosphere, or air, is N2. Other important states of nitrogen include Nitrates (N03), Nitrites (NO2), and Ammonium (NH4).


The compound microscope provides highermagnification compared to the dissecting microscope. For this reason, it is thebest tool for viewing multicellular organisms at the cellular level. Forinstance, using the compound microscope, it's possible to view and study theepithelial cells that line the inside of the mouth or cells of such plants asonions among others.

Switch between different objectives and adjust the focus knobs until you are comfortable using the microscope. Try using different slides to increase your practice.


According to Biological Species Concepts (BSC), species is a basic unit of classification and is defined as a group of similar organisms that interbreed with one another and produce offspring’s and share a common lineage. Species diversity refers to biodiversity at the most basic level and is the ‘variety and abundance of different types of individuals of a species in a given area’. It includes all the species on Earth, ranging from plants such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, angiosperms and all the species of animals including unicellular protozoans to mammals.

Sexual reproduction typically comprises of meiosis using genetic material from two different parent cells. Different environmental events influence and regulate sexual reproduction.


They eat organisms such as bacteria and algae. They sweep the food by their modified oral cilia into their oral groove (mouth). The food is moved with the help of cilia through the mouth pore into the gullet, which forms food vacuoles.

Waste that decomposes slowly (or not at all) gets flushed down drains. Cigarette butts, diapers and coffee grounds often cause problems.


In the deep of fall, Alaska's profound change continued. Record warm ocean temperatures mean that sea ice in the state's northern waters were at historic lows for early November.

The World of Microorganisms

Euglena are neither plants nor animals despitethe fact that they have characteristics of both. Given that they cannot begroups under either the plant or the animal kingdom, Euglena, like many othersimilar single celled organisms are classified under the Kingdom Protista.


Colonial organisms are made up of a group of identicalcells such as the staphylococci bacteria which can survive on their own assingle cells. This is because these individual cells can independently carryout all the functions that are necessary for life.

The waste water/sewage (influent) is passed from top through the activated carbon bed and the effluent comes out from the bottom. The solids attached to the carbon bed hamper further adsorption process. These particles can be removed by backwashing.


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The flocculent particles can change their size, shape and weight, and thus lose their identity. These particles actually coalesce during settling.

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Activated carbon is highly porous and provides large surface area for the adsorption of dissolved solids in the advanced treatment. The compounds that can be removed by adsorption include organic materials (herbicides, pesticides, tannins, lignin’s, colour and odour producing substances), inorganic materials (toxic trace metals) and several other pollutants.


But, he added, it's logical this scale corrosion could happen to other shark species. After all, acidified oceans eat away at the calcium shells in diverse marine critters.

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The synthetic resins with strong acidic (H+) and basic (OH–) functional groups serve as ion exchangers. The cation exchangers (with H+ or Na+) can replace the positively charged ions (Ca2+, Mg2+) in water by hydrogen ions. This is what is done for removing the hardness of water.


Most importantly, the results underscore that climate scientists were always right about how greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide trap heat and warm the surface. It was, and is, well-understood science.

However, any given group ofcells can only respond to given signals while ignoring others because they havespecific cell surface receptors that can only receive and respond to givensignals. The surface receptors allows for binding with specific moleculesso that the cell can respond appropriately.


Trickling filters, also known as percolating or sprinkling filters, are commonly used for the biological treatment of domestic sewage and industrial waste water. In a strict sense, trickling filters are not filters, but they are oxidation units.

In summary, the wastewater treatment process is one of the most important environmental conservation processes that should be encouraged worldwide. Most wastewater treatment plants treat wastewater from homes and business places.


Microscope slides are used to examine single-celled organisms and to look up-close at small plants and organisms. There are two types of prepared slides: dry mounts and wet mounts. Each type of preparation method is used for mounting different types of cells. If you’re wet mounting a particularly pale or translucent specimen, you may need to stain the specimen so it’s visible beneath the microscope.

Never use paper towels with the slides. These leave a lot of lint behind.


The light source is on the base of the microscope and points up toward the stage. It provides the light for image viewing.

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Macrocystis is a monospecific kind of kelp (large brown algae). This genus encompasses the majority of all the Phaeophyceae or brown algae. Macrocystis has pneumatocysts at the base of its edges. Sporophytes are recurrent and the individual may live for up to three years.


They can survive in the absence of oxygen and are not commonly found amidst eukaryotic organisms. Normally, anaerobic eukaryotes are either parasites or symbionts of multicellular organisms that have originated from aerobic ancestors. Examples: Giardia and Trichomonads.

Spatial Patterns of Biodiversity: Hotspots, Biomes,1 Biogeographic Realms, Ecosystems, and Ecoregions

The removal of nitrogen in the form of nitrate by converting to nitrogen gas is referred to as de-nitrification. This process occurs under anaerobic conditions and is brought out by certain genera of bacteria-Aerobacter, Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Lactobacillus, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas and Spirillum.


To prepare your own slide, obtain a specimen you’d like to look at in more detail. Pond (https://dkluchezar.ru/hack/?patch=736) water or pollen are great samples to start with.

Through proper education and awareness, the people’s conscience against such practices must be raised. We may not be deriving direct benefits from many plants and animals, but should they be harmed because of this? Each species has its own utility in the world of biodiversity and has every right to live.


When in the cystic stage, protozoa can live in utmost temperatures or harsh chemicals, or without nutrients, water, or oxygen for a long time. Being a cyst enables parasitic species to dwell on the host externally. This lets them transmit from one host to another. In the form of trophozoites, protozoa feed actively. The transition of a trophozoite to a cyst is called encystation and the transition back to a trophozoite is called excystation.

The use of a food disposer is a common mistake. A disposer won’t break down food particles enough to allow them to pass through the septic tank filter. It can increase the amount of solids in the septic tank by as much as 50 percent. Flushing plastic materials, disposable diapers, paper towels, nonbiodegradable products and tobacco will also clog the system.


If reflects the number of different organisms and their relative frequencies in an ecological system. It includes the organisation of organisms at many levels ranging from complete ecosystems to the chemical components that form the molecular basis of heredity. Thus, biodiversity is sum of all the genes, varieties, species, populations in different ecosystems and their relative abundance.

Myxosporidia: The Myxosporea are a class of microscopic parasites, belonging to the Myxozoa (group of parasitic animals of aquatic environment). They have a life cycle which comprises vegetative forms in two hosts, an aquatic invertebrate, usually an annelid, and an ectothermic vertebrate, usually a fish.


The New Deal wasn’t just paying people to build things. People were doing fulfilling, nation-improving work. They planted three billion trees. They built many of the nation’s bridges and roads.

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Ecological diversity represents an intricate network of different species present in local ecosystems and the dynamic interaction among them. The ecological diversity is of great significance that has developed and evolved over millions of years through interactions among the various species within an ecosystem.


A Guide to Different Types of Pathogens

The phylum is the next level in the classification system and is used to group living organisms together based on some common features. A good example to consider is when you sort your laundry by items of clothes. Your socks aren’t all the same, you most likely group them together and put them in the same dresser drawer.

Protozoa take food into the cell at a point called the cytostome. The food is ingested by them and lysosomal enzymes digest the food. There are also certain types of protozoa that take in food by their cell membranes. Some others such as the amoeba, surround food and absorb it. Others have mouth pores into which they pull in food.


This types of cell interaction is particularlycommon among the cells of the nervous system. Neurotransmitters serve as thesignal molecules, allowing the cells to rapidly communicate with other distantcells.

These are usually marine with silicoflagellates having diatomite deposits. Almost 25 species are included in this category.


Protozoa do not have a cell wall and therefore can have a variety of shapes. Nevertheless, some of the protozoans have a pliant layer, a pellicle, or a stiff shell outside the cell membrane.

Protein Synthesis Worksheet: Definition, Examples & Practice

Just like animals, decomposers break down the chemical bonds in their food molecules. They create many chemical products, including in some cases CO2.


What is Protein Synthesis

A mushroom belongs to the Fungi Kingdom. It looks a bit like a plant, but it's pretty unique too. Unlike plants, fungi cannot make their own food. Fungi absorb their food from decaying material in the environment.

The process is carried out in a sequence of five steps — filling, aeration (reacting) sedimentation (settling), decanting and idle. Several modifications and improvements have been made in the SBR for more efficient operation.


The biological film is rich in the bacteria- Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Alcaligenes, and algae-Chlorella, Utothrix, and Stigeoclonium, besides some fungi and yeasts. Biofilms with a thickness in the range of 70-100µm are efficient for the treatment process.

The Monera Kingdom (sometimes broken into two: bacteria and archeobacteria) is made up of organisms that are only one simple cell. This kingdom that contains some of the smallest living things on Earth. Monera get their food by absorbing it through the wall of the cell. They are also able to make food by harnessing the sunlight's energy in the process of photosynthesis. Bacteria is an example of an organism in the Monera Kingdom.


Too much sludge reduces bacteria’s ability to break down waste. Excess sludge can also overflow into the drain field.

A thorough initial inspection by a pro will cost $300 to $500; after that, regular inspections cost less than $100 each. Your pro will be able to tell you how often your system should be inspected and how does a septic tank work.


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Some components of biodiversity affect carbon sequestration and thus are important in carbon-based climate change mitigation when afforestation, reforestation, reduced deforestation, and biofuel plantations are involved (high certainty). Biodiversity affects carbon sequestration primarily through its effects on species characteristics, which determine how much carbon is taken up from the atmosphere (assimilation) and how much is released into it (decomposition, combustion). Particularly important are how fast plants can grow, which governs carbon inputs, and woodiness, which enhances carbon sequestration because woody plants tend to contain more carbon, live longer, and decompose more slowly than smaller herbaceous plants. Plant species also strongly influence carbon loss via decomposition and their effects on disturbance. Plant traits also influence the probability of disturbances such as fire, windthrow, and human harvest, which temporarily change forests from accumulating carbon to releasing it (C11/3.3).

Among living things, some remove carbon from the atmosphere, while others release it back. The most noticeable participants in this system are plants and animals.


The complexity of the ruminant stomach demonstrates the difficulties that large animals have in extracting sufficient nutrients from plant carbohydrates. However, the volatile fatty acids and proteins that are produced as a consequence of this system form an extremely important component of the human diet.

Sporozoa include organisms that are also called sporozoans or intracellular parasites. In the early stages, they show some movement. They do not possess locomotor organelles in their later stage. All forms of sporozoa are parasites. They include plasmodium, the malarial parasite.


DNA is found by the meter inside even minuscule cells. During replication, the masses of coiled DNA called chromatin (shaped thanks to proteins called histones) organize into what are called chromosomes.

Why is biodiversity loss a concern

The pathogenic organisms can also be removed by mechanical means, during the course of waste water treatment. The processes involving screens (coarse and fine), grit chambers and sedimentation can partly remove the disease- causing organisms.


Place the sample specimen on the slide. Use a pair of forceps to pick up the thin slice of your sample specimen. Delicately lay it on one side of the slide. If you are using a concave slide (in which one side dips down), place the specimen in the center of the concave area.

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The biodiversity in different parts of the world has been largely preserved by the traditional societies. Since the indigenous people always protect the forests for their own benefit, the Government should formulate plans to involve such people for environmental protection.


Types of AlgaeReproduction, Classification, Examples and Microscopy

Rotating biological contactor (RBC) is a recent device for the biological treatment of sewage. It operates on the principle of aerobic attached- growth system operated on the moving media. RBC are suitable for the treatment of domestic and industrial sewage in small and medium towns.

This is the next step in the wastewater treatment process. Screening involves the removal of large objects for example nappies, cotton buds, plastics, diapers, rags, sanitary items, nappies, face wipes, broken bottles or bottle tops that in one way or another may damage the equipment.


Factors Affecting Growth of Bacteria

The screeners are classified as coarse, medium or fine, depending on the size of the openings. The coarse screen has larger openings (75-150 mm). The openings for medium and fine screens respectively are 20-50 mm and less than 20 mm. Different types of screens-fixed bar screen (coarse or medium) disc type fine screen, drum type fine screen are in use.

The lifestyle of the ancient people was closely interwoven with their surroundings. The life of the indigenous people in many parts of the world still revolves around the forests and environment, even in the modem times. Many of them still live in the forests and meet their daily requirements from their surroundings. Due to modernisation, their habitats are being encroached upon and their very survival is at stake. It is ironic that the societies, whose whole life is intricately associated with the forests, are now not able to use the natural resources for their sustenance.


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For efficient operation of activated sludge process, it is necessary to maintain a constant supply of O2 which can be done by mechanical aeration or through the use of rotating paddles. Growth of protozoa in a sludge is an indication of its healthy condition. The disposal of a waste sludge is a problem. It may be used as a fertilizer in crop lands or as landfills, after drying.

They typically ingest their food by phagocytosis. They extend their pseudopods to engulf a prey. They do not possess a mouth or cytostome.


Reducing the amount of water that runs into your tank, particularly over a short period of time, will prevent the flushing of untreated waste into your drain field. You can replace old toilets with low-flow models, install reduced-flow showerheads, and simplest of all, wash laundry throughout the week rather than just on Saturday morning.

Under the microscope they appear like balloon or pear-shaped chrysophycean cells, each with two golden chloroplasts, present in roundish motile colonies. Every cell has two flagella prominent outwards from the colony, and a stem fixed inward near to the colony center. Each cell is bound by spirally organized, colourless scales.


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Apicomplexa: The Apicomplexa, also called Apicomplexia, are a large phylum of parasitic protists. They are spore-forming unicellular parasites. Most of them have a unique organelle that is made up of a type of plastid called an apicoplast, and an apical complex structure. The organelle is used by the organism for penetrating into a host cell. Flagella or pseudopods are found only in certain gamete stages. This group includes organisms like coccidia, gregarines, piroplasms, haemogregarines, and plasmodium. All organisms of this phylum have an infectious stage, the sporozoite. All the species of this group, except Nephromyces, a symbiont in marine animals, are endoparasites of animals.

Euglena Structure and Morphology 

Centuries ago, living things were classified as either plants or animals. Today, the classification of living things helps us gain a better understanding of the world we live in, our relation to living things, and understanding Biology better overall. Let’s take a closer look at the classification, a little bit of its history, and some tips for learning how to use it when exploring a living organism.


Simply put, this involves direct interaction ofthe surfaces of the cells, which is essential in both the development andfunctioning of the organism. This interaction may also occur through the matrix(fluid between the cells) allowing communication between the cells throughsignals.

The free-living protozoa are those which do not infect or live on hosts for their survival. They may produce their food photosynthetically, or eat bacteria, yeast and algae.


This group of organisms is of ciliates. Their locomotion is with the help of cilia. The cilia enable them to move quickly, stop suddenly, and turn sharply while following their prey. The types include free-living forms like paramecium and parasitic forms like balantidium coli. Many ciliates eat bacteria, fungi, and other protozoa.

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Place 1 drop of iodine or methylene blue on the other side of the cover slip. Use an eyedropper and drop the staining chemical on top of the microscope slide, directly next to the cover slip. Be careful to only dispense 1 drop. Excess staining agent may run off of the slide.

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Fixation - Fixation is the first step in the process of making nitrogen usable by plants. Here bacteria change nitrogen into ammonium.


Protozoa are found drifting in the oceans, seas, and freshwater. They are at the base of food chains.

To become part of the carbon cycle, carbon atoms start out in a gaseous form. Carbon dioxide gas – CO2 – can be produced by inorganic processes, or by the metabolisms of living things.


These are mostly photosynthetic and filamentous, some are parasitic as well. There are almost 6,000 species included in this category. For example Corallina, Gracilaria, Kappaphycus, Corallina, Chondrus, Gelidium, Bangia, Palmaria, Porphyra, Polysiphonia, and Rhodymenia.

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As a result, they can only relay signalsto nearby cells. This type of interaction also takes place during earlydevelopment.


Biodiversity influences climate at local, regional, and global scales, thus changes in land use and land cover that affect biodiversity can affect climate. The important components of biodiversity include plant functional diversity and the type and distribution of habitats across landscapes. These influence the capacity of terrestrial ecosystems to sequester carbon, albedo (proportion of incoming radiation from the Sun that is reflected by the land surface back to space), evapotranspiration, tempera­ture, and fire regime—all of which influence climate, especially at the landscape, ecosystem, or biome levels. For example, forests have higher evapotranspiration than other ecosystems, such as grasslands, because of their deeper roots and greater leaf area. Thus forests have a net moistening effect on the atmosphere and become a moisture source for downwind ecosystems. In the Amazon, for example, 60% of precipitation comes from water transpired by upwind ecosystems (C11/3.3).

Superclass Sarcodina: This group includes amoeba, heliozoa, radiozoa, and foraminifera. Amoeba have pseudopods that are used for locomotion and feeding. In amoeba, the flagellas are lobe-like protrusions that extend from the cell membrane. In heliozoa, radiozoa, and foraminifera, the pseudopods are like needles jutting out from the cells.


Microsporidia: The microsporidia constitute a group of spore-forming unicellular parasites. They were at a time known to be protists, but are now known to be fungi. They have a polar tube or polar filament in the spore with which they infiltrate host cells. Microsporidia do not have mitochondria, and instead possess mitosomes.

The genetic variability is essential for healthy breeding population, the reduction in genetic variability among breeding individuals leads to inbreeding which in turns can lead to extinction of species. In the recent decades, a new science named ‘biotechnology’ has emerged. It manipulates the genetic materials of different species through various genetic re-combinations to evolve better varieties of crops and domestic animals.


Many people use a mnemonic device to remember the order of the levels of taxonomy. Some people use "Dear King Phillip Came Over For Good Soup,” but you can come up with whatever and works best for you.

Essentially, multicellular organisms are made up of more than one cell. As such, they are different fromunicellular (single celled) organisms that only consist of a single cell. Likeunicellular organisms, there are a wide range of plant and animal multicellularorganisms in existence.


The sewage organic matter is stabilized by both aerobic and anaerobic processes. The algae present in the aerobic zone carry out photosynthesis and release O2. This oxygen is utilized by the aerobic and facultative bacteria to oxidize soluble and colloidal organic matter.

While all consist ofmore than one cell, they start out as a single cell. The cell proliferates toproduce many more cells that result in the multicellular organism.


There are four major types of settling—discrete settling, flocculent settling, hindered or zone settling and compression. This categorization is mainly based on the tendency of the particles to interact and form solids.

Protein synthesis is the construction of proteins within living cells. The process consists of two parts; transcription and translation.


Your prepared slide is now ready to be inspected beneath a microscope

Classification of all living things got its start with Swedish Botanist, Carl Linnaeus. Due to his interest in plants and animals, his first classification guide, Systema Naturae, was published in 1735.

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These bacteria, also referred to as methanogens or methane formers are responsible for the conversion of acetic acid and hydrogen to methane and carbon dioxide. The most important methanogens belong to the genera Methanobacterium, Methanobacillus, Methanococcus and Methanosarcina.

This type of signaling is short-lived and onlyaffects the local cells. It occurs when signal molecules are released to cellsand travel through the extracellular fluids to reach other cells that areclosely located. This is largely due to the fact that most of the molecules areeither destroyed by enzymes or removed from the extracellular spacesprohibiting them from travelling far.


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The processstarts with a single fertilized cell that increasingly divides to form manymore cells. In the process, the genome causes the cells specialize throughselective gene expression.

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These are also called golden algae. They range from unicellular to colonial flagellates comprising coccoid, capsid, filamentous, amoeboid, plasmodial and parenchymatous types. They are primarily freshwater with 12,000 species.


Paraffin wax - Apart from freezing, paraffin canbe used to fix the sample. Here, the liquid is used to infiltrate the samplethat is then converted in to solid to cut thin sections. This process is knownas embedding tissue where the tissue is embedded in paraffin wax blocks. Asharp blade in a holder (or a microtome) is set at an angle and used to slice(sectioning) the block to obtain quality thin sections of the sample.

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This will cause irreparable damage to all organisms including mankind. Ecosystems depend on the health and vitality of the individual organisms that compose them. As all the organisms in an ecosystem are interdependent, removing just one species can prevent the ecosystem from operating normally.


There will be as many as 12 Democratic presidential debates over the next year. But none of them will be devoted to climate change — for now, anyway.

The activated sludge process, first developed in England in 1914, continues to be the most commonly used modern process for the biological treatment of sewage. In this method, the sewage containing organic matter with the microorganisms is aerated (by a mechanical aerator) in an aeration tank. The reactor contents are referred to as mixed liquor. Under aerobic conditions, the microorganisms metabolize the soluble and suspended organic matter. The generalized metabolic reaction is as follows.


Unfortunately, human activity has altered the cycle. We do this by adding nitrogen into the soil with fertilizer as well as other activities that put more nitrous oxide gas into the atmosphere. This adds in more nitrogen than is needed by normal cycle and upsets the cycle's balance.

Trickling filters are simple, occupy less space and the operating costs are low. They operate efficiently in hot climate and thus are suitable for most developing countries (like India).


Turn the coarse adjustment knob until the specimen comes into broad focus. Caution: you should not use the coarse focus with a high magnification objective for fear of the objective making contact with the slide.

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Biological waste treatment plants use biological matter and bacteria to break down waste matter. Alternatively, Physical waste treatment plants use chemical reactions as well as physical processes to treat wastewater.


Researchers at the Center for International Climate and Environmental Research (CICERO) in Oslo, Norway spend each year tediously compiling the amount of heat-trapping greenhouse gases humanity expels into the planet's atmosphere. This year, their Global Carbon Budget Report projects that carbon dioxide emissions continued growing in 2021, though by a lower-than-usual amount of around 0/6 percent, but still reaching a new record high.

The sewage can be treated by pumping it through a bed of inert materials (sand or coal expanded aggregates) on which the bacteria have grown and formed a film. The effluent that comes out can be recycled to maintain the flow rate.


The protozoa group comprises more than 65,000 species. All the protozoan species belong to the kingdom Protista. Many kinds of protozoa are symbionts. Some of the protozoan species are parasites and some are predators of bacteria and algae. Some examples of protozoans are dinoflagellates, amoebas, paramecia, and plasmodium.

Did you know the fact that fungi lack chlorophyll? This type of life form can cause diseases in humans and can also be used to make cheese by the process.


However, sometimes advanced (tertiary) treatment process may be directly carried out bypassing the other unit operations. This mainly depends on the composition of waste water and the requirements.

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The transportation of wastewater should however be done under hygienic conditions. The pipes or tracks should be leak-proof and the people offering the exhausting services should wear protective clothing.


Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere prevents the sun’s heat from escaping into space, very much like the glass walls of a greenhouse. This isn’t always a bad thing – some carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is good for keeping the Earth warm and its temperature stable.

It’s worth stopping for a second and noting the sustainability benefits of lightweight plastics used in packaging, in particular really lightweight plastic film, one of the major uses of LDPE. Thankfully, plastic packaging is becoming increasingly recognized for its contributions to sustainability. The very nature of plastics – lightweight yet strong – makes them ideal for all sorts of packaging and helps minimize the environmental impact of the packaging.


Chlorine and its compounds are most commonly used. The other chemicals— bromine, iodine, ozone, alcohols, phenols, heavy metals, hydrogen peroxide, alkalies and acids are sometimes employed. After chlorine (regarded as most universal disinfectant), bromine and iodine are in use. In recent years, ozone as a disinfectant is gaining importance, since it is very effective.

The process is important given that it helps in the development of various types of cellsthat serve different functions in the body. As the cells differentiate, theychange in shape and size depending on their functions.


In medicine, biology and research, histologyinvolves studying the anatomy of cells and tissues of multicellular organismsusing a microscopy. This is used to study tissues as well as for diagnosispurposes by pathologists. Unlike viewing epithelial cells of the cheek, viewingbody tissue required more complex preparation of the sample.

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This process leads to the production of large particles that settle down at the bottom of the huge tanks. The wastewater passes through the large tanks for a period of 3-6 hours.


Anaerobic filter consists of a column filled with solid media for the treatment of organic matter in sewage. In this process system, waste water (sewage) flows upwards through the column containing anaerobic bacteria. Due to the presence of solid media, the bacteria are retained in the column. This makes the treatment process more efficient.

Watery waste, called “effluent,” fills most of the tank. Anaerobic bacteria begin breaking down the organic material in the effluent.


Protozoa are single-celled organisms without cell walls. They are believed to be a part of the microbial world as they are unicellular and microscopic. There is a great deal to know about their classification, characteristics and more.

Cell Division in Eukaryotes

People either love or hate dandelions but like other organisms, they are a living thing, and they have a complex level of classification. Let’s see if you can guess the Domain, Kingdom, and Phylum. Did you guess Eukarya, Plantae, and Angiosperms?


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Biodiversity, besides its ecological significance provides a socio-economic and monetary asset to the nation. Human society depends on biological resources, their diversity and the ecosystems that sustain them to provide essential goods and services.

Protozoa reproduce by the method of binary fission or multiple fission. Some of the members reproduce by asexual mode, some by sexual means, and some by both.


Deoxyribonucleic acid (otherwise known as DNA), is the carrier of genetic info found in almost every found living organism to date. It is present in the nucleus of cells and is self-replicating, meaning it’s integral to protein synthesis.

This device prevents lint from entering the system, particularly the synthetic fibers that bacteria can’t digest. I’ve developed one of these filters myself and named it the Septic Protector. It costs about $150, plus shipping, and includes a replacement filter. Find out more about how to filter out laundry lint.


As the biofilm ages, its thickness increases and it automatically settles to the bottom of the tank. The waste waters obtained in milk processing, paper mills and pharmaceutical industries are treated by trickling filters.

The process of anaerobic digestion is carried out in an air tight reactor. Sludge is introduced continuously or intermittently. In the high-rate digestion system, the contents of the digester are heated and mixed completely. And it takes about 15 days for the process to be complete.


A microscope is a device that magnifies an image, allowing you to see small structures in detail. Although they come in a variety of sizes, microscopes for home and school use generally have similar parts: a base, an eyepiece, a lens and a stage. Learning the basics of using a microscope will protect the equipment and provide you with a valuable research tool.

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Phytomastigophorea: The Phytomastigophorea includes protozoans that contain chlorophyll. They can produce their food photosynthetically, like plants. Examples include Euglena and Dinoflagellates. Euglena is regarded as both an alga and a protozoan.


Processes in the Nitrogen Cycle

Plants remove carbon from the atmosphere. They don’t do this as a charitable act; atmospheric carbon is actually the “food” which plants use to make sugars, proteins, lipids, and other essential molecules for life. Plants use the energy of sunlight, harvested through photosynthesis, to build these organic compounds out of carbon dioxide and other trace elements.

Make sure that the lowest power lens is in place before proceeding. This will allow you to get your microorganisms (https://dkluchezar.ru/hack/?patch=3834) into focus before trying a high powered lens. The lowest power lens will be the shortest lens and will have the lowest number written on the side (for example 40x).


For the facultative ponds (i was reading this), the initial and operating costs are low. There is no need for skilled personnel.

Compacted soil and gravel block seepage of effluent and deprive bacteria of oxygen. This is often caused by cars driving or parking on the drain field.


It is the first wastewater treatment plant process and it’s very important

Set a cover slip over the sample specimen. The cover slip prevents the sample specimen from tumbling off the slide. The slip will also protect the sample specimen in case one of the microscope’s users accidentally lowers the lens so much that it taps the specimen.

These are the chemicals (normally positively charged) which form insoluble and gelatinous precipitates with colloidal particles (negatively charged ones present in sewage). The most commonly used coagulants in sewage treatment are alum (alluminium sulfate) iron salts (ferric sulfate, ferrous sulfate, ferric chloride), lime and soda ash (sodium carbonate), sodium silicate and sodium aluminate.


RBC is compact and requires moderate energy input. It has high BOD removal efficiency.

In new research published in April in the journal Nature, scientists found that global warming has forced twice as many marine species than land species to vanish from their hotter habitats —particularly near the already balmy equator. All the species examined were cold-blooded, or ectotherms.


A screener is a device with openings (usually uniform in size) to remove the floating materials and suspended particles. The process of screening can be carried out by passing sewage through different types of screeners (with different pore sizes).

Return from Algae - Reproduction, Identification and Classification to our page on Plankton

Roughing filters are a special type of trickling filters that are designed to operate at high hydraulic loading rates. These filters are mostly used to “reduce the organic matter in downstream processing, besides nitrification applications. Due to high hydraulic loading, there is a continuous sloughing of the biological film. In such a case, the unsettled filter effluent can be recycled, and this increases the efficiency of the treatment process. The retention time on the biofilm being less, organic materials that are not readily degradable remain unaffected.


Instead of DNA’s ribose, however, RNA uses deoxyribose, a different kind of sugar. Also, RNA is most often a single strand, while DNA is famously double-stranded. Finally, DNA contains thymine, while RNA uses uracil instead.

Biodiversity is the foundation of ecosystem services to which human well-being is intimately linked

Anaerobic contact process is carried out in a specially designed reactors. The treatment process consists of mixing of sewage with recycled sludge solids and then digestion under anaerobic conditions. After the digestion is complete, the supernatant effluent is discharged and the settled sludge is recycled.


How Wastewater Treatment Works

Avoid forcing the slides underneath the clips. They should raise up slightly to allow the slide in. If you are struggling, try getting the slide under one clip at a time. Raise the clip, slip the slide underneath, and proceed to the second clip.

RBC are commonly used for the treatment of municipal waste water. In addition, they are widely used for the biological processing of industrial wastes, coming from several industries such as vegetables, pulp, meat and textiles.


Protozoa possess varying characteristics. Scientists consider that animals developed from protozoan ancestors. Modern studies are helping us understand the evolutionary relationship between protozoa and complex multicellular organisms.

Place the slide on the stage of the microscope. Pick up the slide using only the edges, so that you don't press fingerprints onto your clean slide. Fingerprints and oils from your hand can contaminate the slide. You can also use the lint-free cloth to pick up the slide.


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A polypeptide encoded in a gene is expressed in a directional relationship called the central dogma of biology. It recognizes that information moves from the DNA to the RNA to the protein.

Your pro will be able to tell you how often your system should be inspected and how does a septic tank work

The effluents obtained from secondary treatment may contain suspended solids in the size 0/1 to 100µm. The concentration of these solids is variable, and is usually 20-40 mg/l. The removal of suspended solids is carried out by granular medium (sand) filtration and micro screening. Sometimes, diatomaceous earth filters and coagulation-cum sedimentation techniques are also used.


In certain genes, not all of the DNA sequence is used to make a protein. The section of DNA that is non-coding is known as introns. The coding sections of DNA are called exons.

The separated sludge which is not in contact with organic matter becomes activated. It is separated from the settling tank, and returned to the aeration tank, and recycled. The activated sludge recycled in aeration tank serves as a seed or inoculum. The excess and waste sludge can be removed.


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This is assigned to the products that are commercially harvested for exchange in formal markets and is, therefore, the only value of biological resources that is concerned in national income. Biodiversity provides us many products, such as fuel, timber, fish, fodder, skin, fruits, cereals and medicines. In 1994-95 the income from agriculture, forestry and fisheries in India was nearly 30 per cent or 736/88 billion rupees.

Pyrimidine bases bond to purine bases because the shapes of these bases allow hydrogen bonds to form between them. The base pairing rules states that guanine pairs only with cytosine and adenine pairs only with thymine. This rule is known as complementary base pairing. Three hydrogen bonds form between a guanine and cytosine pair whereas only two hydrogen bonds form between an adenine and thymine base pair.


For example, wastewater treatment ensures that the environment is kept clean, there is no water pollution

Draw 1 mL of undiluted solution from test tube US with a pipette and transfer it to the test tube labeled 1:10 containing 9 mL of the dilution liquid and mix thoroughly. There is now 1mL of the undiluted solution in 9 mL of the dilution liquid. The solution, therefore, has been diluted by a factor of 10.

The carbon cycle, under normal circumstances, works to ensure the stability of variables such as the Earth’s atmosphere, the acidity of the ocean, and the availability of carbon for use by living things. Each of its components is of crucial importance to the health of all living things – especially humans, who rely on many food crops and animals to feed our large population.


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Protozoans digest their food in spaces called vacuoles. Contractile vacuoles that are found in protozoa thriving in freshwater, excrete water that penetrates into the cells by osmosis. While chewing down the food, protozoans produce and release nitrogen.

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Eco-tourism includes visiting wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, coral reefs, exotic islands, safaris and trekking in the mountainous and forested areas. In some countries like Nepal, Bhutan, Kenya, Rwanda, eco-tourism has now become the major source of foreign currency income.


The activated carbon requires periodical regeneration. This can be done by heating in a furnace at about 800°C in the absence of O2. At this temperature; the adsorbed organic compounds are converted to gases and released. The carbon granulates are reactivated for reuse. Powdered activated carbon (PAC), instead of granulated carbon, is sometimes used for absorption process. PAC is added to an aeration tank (of secondary treatment) which can adsorb several organic compounds.

Decisions humans make that influence biodiversity affect the well-being of themselves and others

Aerobic attached-growth treatment processes are commonly used to remove the organic matter found in the sewage. These processes are also useful for the nitrification (conversion of ammonia to nitrate).


Ascetosporea: They are a group of protists that are parasites of animals, especially marine invertebrates. Two groups which come under this are the haplosporids and paramyxids. Haplosporid spores have a single nucleus and an opening at one end, covered with an internal diaphragm. After emerging, it develops within the cells of its host, usually a marine invertebrate. However, some infect other groups or freshwater species. Paramyxids grow within the digestive system of marine invertebrates, and produce multicellular spores.

While producers use energy from sunlight to make bonds between carbon atoms – animals break these bonds to release the energy they contain, ultimately turning sugars, lipids, and other carbon compounds into single-carbon units. These are ultimately released into the atmosphere in the form of CO2.


Determine the concentration of the solution following dilution. To determine the final concentration of your solution following serial dilution you will need to know your starting concentration. The equation is Cfinal = Cinitial/D where Cfinal is the ending concentration of the diluted solution, Cinitial is the starting concentration of the original solution and D is the dilution ratio previously determined.

The quantity of heat the oceans have absorbed in the last decade is difficult to describe, if not imagine. The ocean's heat content is measured in the most standard unit of energy, joules (using a 100-watt lightbulb for three hours eats up 1,080,000 joules).


Regular inspections and pumping are critical. But if you’re not squeamish, you can check the sludge level yourself with a device called The Sludge Judge. It costs $100 to $125 and is widely available online. Once you’ve determined that your tank is one-third full of sludge, call a contractor to come pump it out.

Earth's glaciers lost 9 trillion tons of ice. That's the weight of 27 billion 747s.


In order to move your microscope safely, one hand should be under its base for support and the other at its arm. Be sure to only switch off the microscope when the dimmer is set to the lowest intensity and always turn off the lamp before moving the microscope.

Superclass Mastigophora: This group of protozoa is also flagellates. They move with the help of flagella. They feed on bacteria, algae, and other protozoa.


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They depend on their hosts for survival. They take in fluids from the body of their hosts.

The solid particle of the sewage tend to settle down due to gravity. However, most of the solid particles of organic compounds remain in a suspended state in a flowing sewage. If the flow of the sewage is stopped and if it is stored in a tank referred to as sedimentation tank, the solid particles can settle down at the bottom. The process of sedimentation is influenced by several factors. These include the size, shape and specific gravity of particles, besides viscosity and flow velocity of sewage.


To do serial dilutions, start by filling several test tubes with 9 milliliters of a dilution liquid, like water. Then, fill a separate test tube with 2 milliliters of your undiluted solution. Next, use a pipette to transfer 1 milliliter of the undiluted solution to one of the test tubes filled with the dilution liquid. Once you've done that, take 1 milliliter of liquid from the test tube you just filled and transfer it to the next test tube. Continue doing this until you've gone through all of the test tubes. To learn how to calculate the final dilution factor and concentration, scroll down!

Though the study of environment and ecology is quite old, the term biodiversity has been introduced by Walter Rosen in 1986. Biological diversity or Biodiversity is defined as the variety and variability among the living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they occur.


Wastewater Treatment Water Use

Although this increase in polar vortex frequency is a hot area of study, one emerging theory blames significantly diminished Arctic sea ice. The Arctic is warming over twice as fast as the rest of the globe and sea ice cover is plummeting. As a result, recent climate research suggests that — without this ice cover — more heat escapes from the oceans. Ultimately, researchers found that this relatively warmer air interacts with and weakens the winds over the Arctic, allowing frigid polar air to more easily escape to southerly places like Cleveland and New York City.

Heat and light can be effectively used as disinfectants. Sunlight (particularly ultra-violet rays) is in fact a good disinfectant.


Cell Cycle & Division All Materials © Cmassengale

A layer of scum floats to the top. Scum is primarily composed of fats, greases and oils.

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Biodiversity is the most precious gift of nature the mankind is blessed with. The uniqueness of our planet Earth is due to the presence of life manifested through the diversity in flora and fauna. As all the organisms in an ecosystem are interlinked and interdependent, the value of biodiversity in the life of all the organisms including humans is enormous. Besides its ecological and environmental value, biodiversity has significant socio-economic values as well.


The process de-nitrification can be carried out by suspended growth and attached growth systems. The plug flow type of activated sludge system is commonly used.

Iodine and methylene blue are poisonous and should never be ingested. They will also stain skin (temporarily) and clothing (permanently), so wear clothes that you don’t care about when handling the chemicals.


This article throws light upon the four processes of waste water treatment

Anaerobic processes basically involve the decomposition of organic and inorganic matter in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic processing systems are important for the treatment of sludge’s, and high strength organic sewage. Several reactor systems for anaerobic suspended-growth treatment process have been developed. Among these, the complete-mix anaerobic digestion process is most widely used for the treatment of sewage.

Image titled Use a Microscope to Observe Microorganisms Step

Geological Survey (USGS) ordered the agency's researchers to only project climate change impacts through 2040, as opposed to the end of the century. What's more, The Times reported that the Trump administration might not include future high carbon emission scenarios (which are quite likely) in forthcoming climate reports, including the congressionally mandated National Climate Assessment — a major report closely reviewed by The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.


Differentiation continues into adulthood toensure that the body has all the cells it needs. For instance, in the event that the body encounters a newantigen, cell differentiation of the stem cells will produce the cells requiredto counter the new and potentially harmful antigen.

Let’s take a look at a few in-depth examples. We’ll start out by classifying humans.


Simple as a septic system may seem, evaluating its health really requires an expert. There are plenty of contractors who will gladly pump the sludge out of your tank, but in my experience many can’t fully answer how does a septic system work or how it should be maintained. I highly recommend looking for a contractor who has received some formal training in the science of septic systems. Some states have adopted certification programs for septic contractors—check with your Secretary of State’s office to see if yours is among them.

Different things can be concluded. The incubation temperature of your plate might have been too high or too low. The media that was used could also be a problem; some bacteria cannot grow in certain media while others can. In addition, the bacteria might need a longer time than usual to show growth. Any of these could be a possibility, which means more tests need to be done to completely understand and address the issue and come up with a conclusion.


Rotate the nosepiece so that the objective lens with the lowest level of magnification is directly above the sample. Reminder: Using lower magnifications first helps to select the part of the specimen of interest and then adjust further.

What is Wastewater Treatment

Yet new research, published in the journal Nature Climate Change, acknowledges these problems but finds a potential fix: only deploying enough reflective specks in the atmosphere to reduce about half of Earth's warming, rather than relying on geoengineering to completely return Earth to the cooler, milder climate of the 19th century. In other words, giving Earth a geoengineering dose that would reverse a significant portion of the warming, but not enough to stoke the problematic side effects.


In the enzyme-catalysed reactions, high molecular weight compounds (proteins, polysaccharides, lipids and nucleic acids) are degraded to low molecular weight compounds (amino acids, monosaccharide’s, fatty acids, purines and pyrimidine’s). The latter serve as substrates for energy supply and microbial growth.

Microorganisms Lesson for Kids

Adjust the diaphragm to its widest opening. The diaphragm allows you to change the amount of light on the slide. To begin focusing on your specimen, you want to shine the maximum amount of light on the slide. There should be a lever or spinning disc that allows you to alter the diameter.


Can the 2021 biodiversity targets be met

These types have colorless flagellate cells having a vaselike appearance under the microscope. Their cells are attached to lorica with the help pf flagellum as a stalk. Lorica attaches to algae, plants, animals and water surfaces. There are 50 species included in this category. For example Bicosoeca and Cafeteria.

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Most species of free-living protozoa are aerobic. They cannot live without oxygen. Aerobic protozoa are tiny and so are capable of getting oxygen from the liquid medium by diffusion.

Compared to unicellular organisms, multicellular are also more complex given that they are made up of different typesof specialized cells that carry out different functions. A majority of animalspecies, plants (on land) and fungi are multicellular organisms. These rangefrom fungi human beings.


There are various mathematical ways of measuring biodiversity, which calculate the number of species diversity in different regions. The measure of diversity of species is also known as species richness.

And it all started because a hammer, used to drive a stake into the ground, tossed either sparks or bits of hot metal onto the parched land. The Golden State's fire protection agency, Cal Fire, revealed the historic conflagration's cause on June 6 and posted the incident report online.


The phosphorus enriched supernatant that comes out of the phosphorus stripper is treated with lime to precipitate the phosphorus. The resultant liquid supernatant can be returned to the aeration tank for further treatment.

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A gene is a short section of DNA that acts as an instruction manual for our bodies. DNA is found inside almost every cell in the body.


The sewage after the primary treatment is introduced at the head of the tank. It is desirable to supply O2 uniformly throughout the tank.

The excess and waste sludge has a higher fertilizer value compared to other treatment processes

The discs of the shaft, referred to as bio discs, are partially (40-60%) submerged in sewage. As the bio discs are rotated, the biomass attached to them is alternately submerged in sewage. This enables the discs to pick up a thin layer of sewage, and then to oxidize the absorbed substrates. The un-oxidized substrates fall back into the sewage. And this process in repeated again and again by the rotating bio discs.


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The heart of protein synthesis (and what you’ll most likely see on a protein synthesis worksheet) is the codon table. It helps us work through translation to understand the amino acids the mRNA is prescribing. For example, if you want to know what the codon CAA translates to, you’ll use the first letter of the codon (C) to locate the corresponding row on the left side of the chart.

Cows graze on plant material with a side-to-side motion, grinding the grass against a tough area of skin on the roof of the mouth (instead of top front teeth), called the dental pad. The chewed material is then passed into the first two digestive chambers, the ‘rumen’ and the ‘reticulum’, where the food is mixed with saliva and separated into liquid form and solid clumps called ‘cud’. The cud is then regurgitated and further chewed, to reduce down the particle size of the food. It is then passed back into the two chambers, where the fibrous cellulose is broken down by protozoans, bacteria, fungi, and yeasts. The partly digested material is then moved into the third chamber, the ‘omasum’, where the liquids are absorbed into the blood stream. Next, the material is moved into the fourth stomach, the ‘abomasum’. This chamber is the most similar to the stomach of non-ruminants, and contains gastric acids which further break down the food.


Cell Cycle & Division

Without the filter, waste particles could pass into the perforated pipes and clog them. It would require extensive digging to clean and unclog the system.

In addition to biodiversity within habitats, the diversity of habitats in a landscape exerts additional impacts on climate across multiple scales. Landscape-level patches (>10 kilometers in diameter) that have lower albedo and higher surface temperature than neighboring patches create cells of rising warm air above the patch (convection). This air is replaced by cooler moister air that flows laterally from adjacent patches (advection). Climate models suggest that these landscape-level effects can substantially modify local-to-regional climate. In Western Australia, for example, the replacement of native heath vegetation by wheatlands increased regional albedo. As a result, air tended to rise over the dark (more solar-absorptive and therefore warmer) heathland, drawing moist air from the wheatlands to the heathlands. The net effect was a 10% increase in precipitation over heathlands and a 30% decrease in precipitation over croplands (C11/3.3).


These are silica-scaled ranging in size from unicellular to colonial flagellates and cells are enclosed in silica scales. There are 250 species encompassed in this class. For example Synura and Mallomonas.

There are three kinds of RNA: messenger RNA (mRNA) transfers the genetic code from the DNA in the nucleus out to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) provides the structure for the ribosomes. Finally, transfer RNA (tRNA) works during translation to bring the amino acids to the ribosome so that a polypeptide (an amino acid chain) can be built.


The class level is another way to group together organisms that are alike, but it becomes even more specific than phylum. There are more than 100 classes, but some of the more common ones that you’ll likely use on a regular basis in Biology class includes the vertebrates, invertebrates, dicots, or monocots.

The trickling filters are classified as low rate (the conventional one), high rate and super rate. This categorization is mainly based on the hydraulic and organic loading rates of the sewage. The low rate filters are suitable for the treatment of domestic sewage, while high rate filters and super rate filters are useful for industrial sewage.


The tertiary treatment stage has the ability to remove up to 99 percent of the impurities from the wastewater

On June 26, as a potent heat wave settled over Europe, atmospheric scientist Patrik Winiger also settled into his seat aboard a high-speed electric train traveling from Zurich to Amsterdam. The heat, which would soon topple temperature records across the continent, began to stress the sleek Deutsche Bahn train.

The next level in the classification of living organisms is categorized much like the group of people that we call family. We are all different, but we share enough similarities that we belong in the same family; the same applies to all living things.


Ecological diversity refers to the ‘variability among the species of plants and animals living together and connected by flow of energy and cycling of nutrients in different ecosystems or ecological complexes’. It also includes variability within the same species and variability among the different species of plants, animals and microorganisms of an ecosystem. Thus, it pertains to the richness of flora, fauna and microorganisms (hop over to this web-site) with in an ecosystem or biotic community.

At the treatment plant, odor control is important, to say the least. Wastewater contains a lot of dirty substances that cause a foul smell over time. To ensure that the surrounding areas are free of the foul smell, odor treatment processes are initiated at the treatment plant.


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When there is more carbonic acid in the ocean compared to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, some carbonic acid may be released into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. On the other hand, when there is more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, more carbon dioxide will be converted to carbonic acid, and ocean acidity levels will rise.

Stereo Microscope Vs Compound Microscope

A septic system that was properly designed and installed needs only occasional ‘pumping’ to remove the sludge and scum from the tank. But without knowing how does a septic tank work, you can do things that harm—or destroy—the system.


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These are called brown seaweeds of varying size ranging from small microscopic to large 20-meter size. They comprise 1,500 species that are usually marine.

The anaerobic phosphate stripper removes the phosphate, and the resultant sludge is returned to aeration tank which takes large quantities of phosphorus. After sedimentation, the phosphorus enriched sludge again passes through Phostrip, and the cycle is repeated again and again.


Multicellular Organisms Development, Processes, Interactions and Microscopy

Radzyń, Poland hit nearly 101 degrees Fahrenheit, a region outside of Berlin reached 101/5 degrees, and the average max June temperature in France hit its highest point ever, at nearly 95 degrees. On June 27, France peaked at over 107 degrees.

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The mode of nutrition of protozoa is heterotrophic, and most species obtain food by phagocytosis. Phagocytosis is the process where the cell changes shape by sending out pseudopodia to make contact with food particles.

We also laud this process because it ingeniously makes use of the most important natural resource; water. After the treatment, the water can be used for cooling machines in factories and industries. It will minimize the need of using freshwater, thereby, in a way, saving water.