I switched from windows, so I can't use Apophysis anymore. I think that's a stupid oversight of whoever originally wrote Apo.

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The rhinophores are very contractile and can retract to one half their length upon being touched or when they come in contact with a foreign object such as a sea anemone. When contracted the rhinophores appear to be ringed but in extension during undisturbed activity this configuration is lacking. In the living forms the rhinophores are tinged a light orange and the distal third has a white external pigmentation. The foot is broad, well developed with two short anterior lateral extensions which add i to the total width of the foot at their point of origin. The width of the foot is relatively constant and the posterior end forms a rather abrupt point. During crawling activities the posterior portion of the foot does not project far from the body. The cerata have a central core of the digestive gland which i> red-brown in color. In each ceras this core terminates at the distal end just before an epidermal pigmentation of white dots appears. In some cerata these external dots are nu- merous and close together forming a ring and the tip beyond this ring is the translucent white color of the body. The cerata are round in cross section and taper evenly toward the distal end.


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Particles which enter the hood groove are conveyed out of the caecum and to the dorsal hood. At the head of the dorsal hood, particles and mucus-bound masses accumulate until they spill over the gastric shield and are picked up by the head of the crystalline style. The larger food strings and mucus masses either remain in the caecum, where they are eventually broken down into finer sizes, or are passed out of the caecum via the ciliated surface of the caecum's posterior wall. This material is soon caught up in the currents of the stomach's left wall and carried to the head of the dorsal hood where it is wound around the head of the style. A second path a mucus-food string may take after entering the stomach lumen is to pass along the left anterior stomach wall into the sorting caecum. The subsequent treatment of the mucus food strings within the caecum is similar to that described in previous paragraphs. The final alternative route which may be taken by mucus-food strings entering the stomach is to be conveyed directly from the oesophagus to the minor intestinal groove. Within this groove, ciliary currents carry the food strings posteriorly where they enter the dorsal hood and are passed to the spinning mucus-food mass or bolus enveloping the anterior portion of the crystalline style. More rarely, food strings continue in a posterior direction along the minor intestinal groove and ultimately empty into the mid-gut. On occasions when the stomach is relatively empty, food strings fall into the right duct tract and pass on to the caecum for sorting.


SALINITY TOLERANCE, PAGURUS LARVAE 113 megalopa compared to earlier zoeal stages has been noted before in Petrochims diogenes (Provenzano, 1968). DISCUSSION The notion that certain life history stages are more subject to limitation by abiotic environmental factors such as salinity, was first enunciated by Shelford (1915). Since then, considerable evidence has been amassed demonstrating that younger stages tend to be less tolerant than adults. Among decapod crusta- ceans, perhaps the best documented example is the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, which can tolerate salinities from fresh to oceanic as an adult, but must return to water with a salinity in excess of I5%o for hatching of the eggs. Complete larval development occurs only at 20%c and above (Sandoz and Rogers, 1944; Costlow and Bookhout, 1959; Costlow, 1967). Other examples from various phyla may be found in recent reviews by Kinne (1964, 1966) and other papers in the literature. Salinity tolerance of decapod embryos has received only cursory attention. Broekhuysen (1936) cultured Carcimis maenas eggs at salinities from 10 to 5Q% C. At salinities from 20 to 40%, 16 C, and 25 to 40%, 10 C, complete embryonic development occurred, while at salinities above and below this range, development occurred to a degree, but hatching was not observed. At 10%c, no embryonic development was detected. Tolerance of each larval stage is unknown, but the adult tolerance is from 4 to 34% salinity (or above).

Apophysis Guide by ClaireJones

The second variable that creates a virtual floor for bass and other species is Oxygen levels. In many locations O2 levels are low in deeper water – and bass seem to be extremely sensitive to the amount of Oxygen available.


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The individual uncleaved eggs measured 0/25 mm in diameter and the egg capsule surrounding the single egg measured 0/41 mm in length by 0/30 mm in width. The egg masses were de- posited over a period of approximately 15-20 days during the month of December. The algal species Ascophyllum nodosinn and Chondrus crispits were introduced to the tanks and utilized by the nudibranchs for egg deposition. Although both these species are present on the intertidal area where the nudibranchs were col- lected and may serve as a substrate for egg deposition, C. stimpsoni also deposited eggs on the sides of the tanks and the undeside of several rocks in the tanks. Development time varied during the two years of observations and is influenced by temperature. The time of development from egg deposition until the juvenile crawled from the egg mass was 52 days at a temperature ranging from 4/0 C to 5/0 C. The time of development at a temperature ranging from 5/0 C to 8/5 C was from 25 to 34 days. This makes it difficult to predict development in nature and continual observations of development in the Maine habitat have not been made. The eggs cleave equally to the four-cell stage and a quartet of micromeres are given off clockwise at the eight-cell stage. A rounded ball of small cells results from repeated cleavages. Soon after this a cap-shaped gastrula is formed with a XUMHK AXCH MOLLUSC LIFE HISTORY S) ventral depression.


The species also occurs in the British Isles where it was probably introduced with consignments of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin (Orton, 1927). U. cinerea preys on a wide variety of marine invertebrates (Carriker, 1955; Wood, 1968) and in localities where the oyster is cultured, destruction of young oysters may be a serious commercial problem. This species has been the subject of much research but information on its growth and longevity is incomplete, particularly for populations in North America. Information on the size of U. cinerea from different localities is available, notably the work of Cole (1942), Stauber (1943), Walter (1910), Federighi (1931a) and Myers (1965) and certain workers have attempted, unsuccessfully, to cor- relate size with temperature (Federighi, 1931b; Fraser, 1931). The problems in- volved in this type of correlation have been discussed by Carriker (1955) and Chestnut (1955). The only detailed studies of growth of U. cinerea are based on populations from English waters (Cole, 1942; Hancock, 1959). Both authors assessed growth by size frequency analysis and Cole made use of growth interruption marks on the siphonal canal in evaluating the individual components of his polymodal size frequency curves. Andrews (1955) and others have commented that no evidence was provided to support the assumption that the interruption marks on the siphonal canal were annual growth marks (annuli). Andrews also noted that Cole's analysis lacks data on young U. cinerea, up through two years, owing to the dif- ficulty in using an oyster dredge to collect small snails. Furthermore, Cole failed to provide evidence supporting his contention that the smooth curves fitted to the size frequency distributions represent year classes.

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Hymenolepis diminuta also requires sodium for glucose transport. This will be discussed elsewhere (Fisher, in preparation). The data on accumulation of various sugars by Calliobothrium verifies earlier reports (Read, 1957; Laurie, 1961) that this worm does not metabolize mannose or fructose. The worm is almost impermeable to these sugars. In the case of galactose, the worm seems to accumulate the sugar to higher levels than glucose can be accumulated. Calliobothrium has been reported to ferment galactose at rates almost equivalent to the rates of glucose fermentation (Read, 1957; Laurie, 1961 ). Thus, it may seem surprising that virtually no 14 C-galactose was incorporated into the polysaccharide of the worm. In a 60 min period, incorporation of 14 C-glucose into polysaccharide was 125-fold that of galactose. However, galactose is not glycogenic in the cyclophyllidean tapeworm Hymenolepis diniinuta. Although starved H. diminuta showed a dramatic net glycogenesis when furnished with glu- cose, no significant net glycogenesis occurred when galactose was available (Read, 1967). Like Calliobothrium, H. diminuta transports galactose into the tissues by a specific mediated system and ferments this sugar, but galactose is not glycogenic.

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Hovops lidiae sp. n: (A) female habitus, dorsal view; (B) male, palp ventral view; (C) male, palp lateral view; (D) male, detail of the tibial apophysis; (E) male, spination on the anterior tibia and metatarsi; (F) female, epigyne ventral view; (G) female, vulva dorsal view. Scale bars: A = 1 mm; B–D & F, G = 0/2 mm.

Spirals Apophysis flame pack

II. EFFECTS OF REDUCED SALINITY ON LARVAL DEVELOPMENT x MORRIS H. ROBERTS, JR. 2 Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, Virginia 23062 Temperature and salinity define a set of conditions within which planktonic organisms can survive and develop. Thorson (1946) described the restriction of some meroplankters to Kattegat water in the Oresund which was presumed to be based on either a temperature, or a salinity discontinuity or both. Bary (1963a, b, c), in an extensive study of North Atlantic plankton, clearly demonstrated a relationship between zooplankton distribution and temperature-salinity distribution. Banse (1956) observed the distribution of polychaete and echinoderm larvae with respect to various water masses in Kiel Bay. He concluded that these larvae were restricted to their "Gebirtswasser" by the temperature-salinity characteristics of these water masses. In a subsequent paper (1959) he described a similar situa- tion for copepods. Survival and rate of development of decapod larvae are temperature-dependent phenomena. It has been shown for a variety of species that there is some optimal temperature range above and below which larval mortality increases (Boyd and Johnson, 1963; Chamberlain, 1961, 1962; Costlow, 1967; Costlow and Bookhout, 1962, 1968; Costlow, Bookhout and Monroe, 1960, 1962, 1966; Coffin, 1958, I960). There is a unique range of temperature permitting survival for each decapod species so far studied. Further, it has been demonstrated that intermolt duration decreases with increasing temperature.

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Once higher water temps stabilize in the summer bass behavior is somewhat more consistent and predictable. They like to hide and prefer deeper cooler location.


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Clinical Head and Neck Anatomy for Surgeons.pdf

A characteristically long emission latency time always occurred between the first stimulus and the first detectable light emission. Likewise, there was substantial delay, on the order of a second, between the last stimulus and the beginning of light extinction. Light emission, which was maximal after 21 sec, terminated about 130 sec after the end of stimulation. For purposes of comparison with the effects of single shocks, it is evident that approximately 75 times more light is generated by the preparation shown in Figure 4A than is generated by the preparation of 3A. With stimuli longer than 10 msec, spontaneous glowing occurred after the light response to electrical stimulation. The intensity of this glowing was about twice that of the initial response. The example shown in Figure 4B was induced by a 10 v, 20 msec, 10/sec stimulation for 8 sec. After such behavior, the photophore usually no longer responded to electrical, chemical, or mechanical stimulation. Consequently, in the experiments reported in this paper, 7 msec 20 FERNAND BAGUET AND JAMES CASE stimuli were used, permitting application of high frequency stimulation without spontaneous glowing which we assume to represent damage. Repetitive bouts of stimulation initially cause an increase in response magnitude followed subsequently by diminished responses. This is illustrated in Figure 5 where emission rates (black circles) and the corresponding emission latency times (open circles) of 10 successive responses are plotted.


A second recent paper of importance is by Drum (1968). His conclusions on organic material rest primarily on incineration data. Unfortunately, organic material is not the only material volatilized by such a procedure. All three microscopy techniques used in this study indicate the existence of an HF-resistant filament that is axial in position. From the chemical analysis there would seem to be sufficient organic matter to account for the filament as carbo- hydrate or protein. Organic axial filaments have been demonstrated in calcareous spicules ( Minchin and Reid, 1908). Jones (1967) refutes much of that work, contending that the filaments are preparation artifacts and at best are impure calcite in the intact spicule. The present work does not appear to be subject to that kind of criticism. Concentric rings are revealed by gentle etching of spicule cross sections. From fracture studies the earlier workers, reviewed by Minchin (1909), had concluded that the spicule was composed of concentric lamellae.

L 'n/li t microscopy Nitric acid-washed spicules were observed by phase-contrast light microscopy in a Wild A120 research microscope. The photographs in this paper were made with a 100 > oil immersion objective on Kodak Panatomic-X 35 mm film. Spicules were placed between a plastic cover glass and a plastic dish and indi- vidual spicules observed from the time the HF reached them. Timed observations thus represent time after contact of the observed spicule with the etching fluid. A spicule and its remnants were observed for as long as 2 hours. Electron, microscopy Drum (1968) developed a procedure using rotary shadow t<> make a replica from which the spicule was then removed by HF digestion. This three-dimen- sional replica allowed him to study the surface well, but the internal filament was SPONGE SPICULE FINE STRUCTURE 127 often displaced or obscured. The technique was modified in our laboratory to facilitate study of the filament. The spicule was partially removed by a brief etch in HF, exposing a portion of the axial filament. After rotary shadowing, the remaining spicule was removed by a second digestion in HF. The axial filament was held attached to the replica.


Phase contrast photomicrographs of spicules and axial filaments in HF during digestion, all same magnification, scale line 20 /j. FIGURE 1. Intact spicule at first contact with HF showing axial filament (arrow). FIGURE 2. Digestion in 1 N HF alone leaves the axial filament (arrow) protruding from partially digested siliceous cylinder. SPONGE SPICULE FINE STRUCTURE \ 1 ( > A technique was also devised for studying the ultrastructure of spicules in cross section. In general terms, lightly etched spicule sections were replicated with cellulose acetate. The replicas were removed and shadowed, and this nega- tive image examined. Cleaned spicules were embeddd in Epon 812 and poly- merized at 60 for 48 hours. The blocks were cut with a diamond saw so as to expose cross sections of a maximum number of spicules. The sawed surface was polished with Barnesite (Edmund Scientific Company) polishing compound and cleaned in an ultrasonic cleaner with distilled water. A negative replica of the polished surface was made by evaporating a drop of 8% cellulose acetate in acetone on the surface. After about 46 hours, the dry plastic negative replica was stripped off.

If the electrical current stimulates nerves in our experiments, the latency time cannot correspond to nerve conduction time but rather might be associated with processes occurring at the level of "nerve-photocyte" junctions. Strum (1969) describes nerve-photocyte junctions having a specialized structure: non-myelinated nerve fibers enter the light organ from a deep subdermal plexus (Whitear, 1952) but do not make direct contact with the photocytes, but rather with a "basal lamella" surrounding the posterior regions of the photocytes. These are separated from the lamella by a sinus which appears to be empty. Finally, it should be recalled that when microelectrodes are implanted in the photophore, there is a response to a single pulse with a much shorter latency time, about 100 to 200 msec. The different properties of excitability and the short latency time thus apparent might imply that, in this case, the photogenic cells are directly stimulated. This is borne out by experiments in progress that show the minimal latency for light generation by photophores in vivo is in excess of 1 second for electrical excitation of the photophore nerve and not less than 5 seconds for nor-epinephrine injection within a millimeter of the photophore. Once triggered, light production increases progressively during stimulation. According to Nicol (1957) a photophore contains about 600 to 700 photogenic cells. This progressive increase might correspond either to a recruitment of cells or, assuming all the cells are simultaneously stimulated, to an increase of their light emission. Our results do not enable us to distinguish between these two hypotheses.


Best Summer Bass Lures Kid Holding a Largemouth Bass on a Boat

Cast these rattlers near heavy cover or shade, where bass bed down and wait out the hottest parts of the day. In this mode, bass are opportunistic, and the Aruku Shad will instigate aggressive bites from the territorial predators.

The experiment was usually begun in the early evening. At half-hour intervals for at least the first 4 hours, the moths were inspected under dim red light for calling behavior; they were again inspected the following morning. In the experiments performed on Cecropia the female moths were reared and caged in two constant-temperature rooms, one programmed for a short day (12L:12D) and the other for a long day (17L:7D). Under dim red light the moths were inspected for calling behavior at hourly intervals throughout the scotophase. In the experiments performed on A. pcrnyi, virgin females were caged with males and their mating behavior ascertained as described by Riddiford (1970). EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 1. Delay in response of virgin female Polyphemus moths to vapors of trans-2- he. venal As described under Methods, 46 normal females were caged in a darkened room in the presence of the vapors of /raM^-2-hexenal. Observations under dim red light at 0/5 hour intervals indicated that at least one hour was required for the initiation of calling behavior and that 74 % of individuals were calling after a total of 4 hours. More detailed observations were carried out on a series of 9 virgin females which were placed, 1 or 2 at a time, in a 2-liter glass chamber in a darkened room. The chamber was ventilated by a gentle stream of air containing the vapors of a 0/05% aqueous solution of fraw^-2-hexenal. Observations of the moths were made at 15-minute intervals under dim red light.


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As to the nature of the axial filament, there can be little question now that the siliceous macroscleres have a component part that is both axial and HF- resistant. The filament can be directly observed before and during etching. The high magnification light microscopy leads us to conclude that the filament visible by phase microscopy is not derived from the outer surface of the spicule by collapse of a net or sheath. Nor can we see how it could be derived by the coalescence of isolated particles within the siliceous matrix that come together during dis- solution of the spicule. Organic matter on the native spicule surface would pre- sumably have been destroyed by the 4-hour digestion in boiling concentrated nitric acid. The direct observation during solution of the spicule in HF reveals an object protruding from the end of the retreating spicule that has the same dimensions as a line found within the spicule prior to etch. What portion of the axial filament may be protein or other organic material? The destruction of axial filament in mixed citric-hydrofluoric acid indicates only that a chelatable cation contributes to the stability of the filament. Other similar organic substances have been characterized; in particular a presumably unrelated factor involved in cell aggregation has been purified from sponge (Moscona, 1968). Its insolubility depends on the presence of Ca ++ or other divalent cations.


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Hovops madagascariensis: (A) female habitus, dorsal view; (B) female, eyes arrangement; (C) male, palp ventro-retrolateral view; (D) male, palp ventral view; (E) female, epigyne ventral view; (F) female, vulva dorsal view; (G) female, spination on the anterior tibiae and metatarsi; (H) male, spination on the anterior tibia and metatarsi. Scale bars: A, B = 1 mm, C–F = 0/2 mm.

Other than that you’ll just have to pay attention to other species. The bass will become active when their prey becomes active, so your other opportunity will be mingling with bait species when light or temperature changes. But, this is a little more tricky than shocking a bass into a strike.

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SCHWAB AND RICHARD E. SHORE and other marine animals in a recirculating aquarium (Instant Ocean) at 13 in artificial sea water ( InMant Ocean) to which has been added sodium silicate to give 1 mM silicate, Growth of new tissue occurred in this aquarium. The sponge was identified as to species on the basis of morphology and spicule type. Acarnus crithacns has a peculiar acanthocladotyle as a minor macrosclere (DeLaubenfels, 1932). The spicules studied were the major macrosclere, a simple style. Preparation of spicules Spicules were freed from the surrounding sponge tissue and other contaminants in several ways: (a) nitric acid and density gradient centrifugation, (b) nitric acid and water washing, (c) crude enzymatic digestion and water washing. For light microscopy and some of the chemical analysis, spicules were freed from the sponge tissue by digestion in boiling concentrated nitric acid. The acid was washed off by repeated centrifugation through distilled water. The spicules were sepa- rated from organic debris and sand by isopycnic centrifugation on a density gradient of carbon tetrachloride and ethylene dibromide. They were washed in methanol and dried at 20. For electron microscopy spicules were cleaned in concentrated nitric acid at room temperature (4 hours) and washed in distilled water. Finally the styles were separated from the other spicules by differential settling in dis- tilled water and air dried at 60. Client leal analysis Acid-washed, density gradient spicules were freed from tiny flakes (presumably mica) of the same density (1/93 to 1/96) by gentle swirling in a shallow dish.


FishingNerds.com Best Summer Bass Lures Comments Feed

Simply cast it to the bank and swim it back to the boat, or pull it along the side of weeds and lilies. Altering the speed of the retrieve will vary the spinner’s depth in the water column.

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Our results tend to substantiate the hypothesis of Williams' group. Furthermore, it should be possible to use this experimental system as a basis for a series of time-dosage studies that would shed additional light on this question. The authors acknowledge their indebtedness to J. G. Riemann for the electron micrographs in Figures 5 and 6 and to J. 1). Johnson for preparing the chitinase- dve conjugate used in the Benjaminson technique. Special acknowledgment goes to Herbert Oberlander and A. Glenn Richards for their helpful comments and suggestions. This work was supported in part by a grant from the Kales Foundation. SUMMARY Two types of sheath material are deposited during the development of leg regenerates in the cockroach, L. madcrae. The first sheath to appear resembles wound cuticle because it contains no chitin. Its deposition in vitro can be induced by a number of unrelated substances. The second sheath contains chitin, bears spines and setae, and represents the cuticle. Deposition of this sheath is induced in vitro by microgram quantities of ecdysterone but not by other substances that were tested.


Best Summer Bass Lures

As the temperatures start to drop bass will do two things. Follow their food source and prep for winter.

The rinding that encysted juvenile worms can suppress urchin gametogenesis has important implications regarding gametogenic control. Suppression does not seem to be due to the release and diffusion of some substance by the worms because gametogenesis is suppressed only oral to the infections rather than all around them. Moreover, the worms are coiled and encased in cysts produced by the urchin gonads; they are not likely to move through the gonads and disrupt gametogenesis. Rather, the encysted worms seem to block the passage of some material that is essential for gametogenesis. Such a gametogenic regulating sub- stance, although never directly demonstrated, is almost certainly present because gametogenesis occurs in synchrony among all five gonads in individual sea urchins ( Pearse, 1969). The encysted nematodes probably do not block transport of simple nutrients; radioactive tracing studies have shown that nutrient transfer in urchins occurs mainly through the perivisceral coelom ( Farmanfarmaian and Phillips, 1962). Instead, the apparent blockage of gametogenesis by the juvenile nematodes indicates the presence of a hormonal substance which regulates gameto- genesis in sea urchins and is transported within the gonad (perhaps through the perihemal or hemal spaces) rather than through the perivisceral coelomic fluid. We are indebted to 1 )r. Russel L. Zimmer, Resident Director, for providing aid and facilities for these studies at the Santa Catalina Marine Biological Labora- tory. Santa Catalina Island, and to Dr. Nicholas D. Holland, Dr. W. Duane Hope, Dr. Phyllis T. Johnson, and Mr. Leighton Taylor for advice and criticism. This study was supported in part by the Federal Water Quality Administration Grant No. 18050 DNV.

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Namely, it must function within a burrow into which sediment is being continuously deposited from both particle-laden water passing over its burrow entrance and the mudstone by- products of its own mechanical boring. This report is a comparative study on the ciliary mechanisms of feeding, digestion, and sediment removal in A. jalcata. Sediment removal can hardly be considered separately from feeding and digestion, as it is during these later two processes that sediment is resolved from potential food material and extruded from the burrow. MATERIALS AND METHODS A clear plastic mold of the burrow was constructed for observing the method employed in removing the sediment produced during mechanical boring. A piece of mudstone containing a live specimen of A. jalcata within its burrow was cracked open and the boring mussel carefully removed. A soap model was made of the burrow and a transparent "Bioplastic" two-piece mold (dorsal and ventral pieces with respect to the orientation of the bivalve) was cast of the soap figure. The finished mold was washed in running seawater for several days to remove traces of water soluble chemicals present on the plastic's surface. The original living bivalve, was naturally positioned in the plastic burrow and the bivalve-burrow unit was lowered into running seawater. The bivalve was considered established in the plastic substrate after it had laid down byssal thread on the burrow floor and extended its siphonal process for feeding. The course of ciliary currents was determined by introducing carborundum #100, carborundum #600, carmine, or crushed mudstone and following the move- ments of these substances through a Wild M-5 dissecting microscope.

UNM Orthopaedics Research Journal

The habitat is a rocky intertidal shore formed by a railroad embankment. The snails occupy approximately the lower third of the littoral zone where they occur on the sides and undersurfaces of rocks. Because of its location just within the mouth of the Mystic River, this shore habitat is well protected from wave action. The yearly salinity range is approximately 29- 31 ppt and the seasonal temperature range is from -1-25 C. Ice forms on the shore in late winter. Sampling was begun in June 1967 but for reasons noted below, most of this study is based on material collected in October, 1968, plus six samples from May through October, 1969. A total of approximately 2500 oyster drills was used in this analysis. The method followed in collection of the snails was as follows: collecting began about 30 minutes prior to LW and was continued for one hour. All snails were collected by hand by picking snails from individual rocks. Every rock selected was examined carefully to be certain that all snails were removed, thus reducing sampling bias in favor of large snails. The same stretch of shore and the same vertical level was sampled each time.


Clinical Oral Anatomy A Comprehensive Review for Dental Practitioners and Researchers

There is no information concerning the effects of temperature on the isolated luminous system of Porichthys. The high value we calculate might be explained by assuming the presence of a series of reactions pre- ceding the luminous reactions; depolarization phenomena, for example. It is surprising that the optimal temperature for light production is around 20 C, when the temperature of the Porichthys mid-water habitat is around 10 C. Perhaps an explanation lies in the fact that during the spawning season, the fish seeks warmer water. Crane (1965) observed the courtship display of Porichthys in the aquarium and observed a well-defined associated pattern of luminescence. Since bioluminescence plays a role in the courtship pattern of Porichthys and since isolated photophores produce little light at low temperature (10 C), it is con- ceivable that the mechanisms of luminescence are better adapted to the breeding environment rather than to its usual habitat. From our results, the light energy produced by a photophore may be roughly estimated, assuming the wavelengths of light from an intact photophore and from the luminous system in vitro are similar, approximately 460 m/x (Cromier, Crane and Nakano, 1967). For minimal stimulation at 10 C, the peak of light produc- tion is estimated as 6/5 >: 10" 1 microwatt; at 20 C, 4/6 X 10"* microwatt. For a maximal stimulation at 20/sec and 20 C oxygen, the output is 1/4 X 10~ 3 microwatt. These computations are rendered highly approximate if only owing to the difficulty of ascertaining the geometry of light emission and the possi- bility of light absorption by associated tissues and especially chromatophores. We are most indebted to Mr. Jules Crane, Dr. Richard Ibara and Mr. M. S. Trinkle for assistance in obtaining Porichthys and for their most helpful advice and assistance.

Further, several tape- worm species are known to require an external source of carbohydrate for growth and reproduction; at least 14 species can metabolize no sugars other than glucose and galactose (Read and Simmons, 1963). Calliobothrium vcrticiUatum, a tetra- phyllidean cestode parasitizing the smooth dogfish, has been reported to absorb and metabolize glucose and galactose but not to utilize fructose, mannose, sucrose, lactose, trehalose, or maltose from the suspending medium (Read, 1957; Laurie, 1961). It seems highly probable that glucose, and perhaps galactose, is a required energy source for Calliobothrium. Although no data on the concentrations of free monosaccharides in the environment of the worm are available, it seemed desirable to study sugar absorption by the worm in vitro, with the view that sugar metabolism may limit growth and reproduction of Calliobothrium in its host. MATERIALS AND METHODS The hosts, Mustelus canis, were collected by a commercial fisherman and dis- tributed by the Supply Department of the Marine Biological Laboratory. The dogfish were maintained in large tanks with running sea water (18-22) until the time of an experiment. The holding period varied from one to three days. The hosts were killed by a blow on the chondrocranium and the spiral intestine quickly removed to a container immersed in ice. The intestinal valves were split longitudinally and the adult cestodes removed to a balanced salt solution also maintained at (250 mM NaCl, 4/4 mM KC1, 5/1 mM CaCL, 2/9 mM MgCl 2, and 300 mM urea, buffered with 10 mM tris-maleate at pH 7/2, as described by Read, Simmons, Campbell and Rothman 1960). This solution is referred to herein as saline.


Specimens used in this study were provided by the following institutions, whose curators are thanked: CASC — California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, USA (Dr C. Griswold) and MRAC — Museé Royale de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium (Dr R. Jocqué). The palps of the males and the epigynes of the females were dissected in alcohol and cleared in lactic acid (90 %) for 15–20 min in a double boiler. The format of the abbreviations, the spine formulae and the terminology used to describe the male and female genitalia follow those proposed by Corronca (1998b). All measurements are in millimetres. The specimens were examined, and outstanding characters were photographed, through a Nikon Coolpix S10 digital camera mounted on an Olympus stereomicroscope and assembled using Adobe Photoshop CS2 software.

Prolonged exposure to 2 N HF does not visibly alter the filament. By contrast to the persistence of the filament in HF alone, when citric acid is added to the HF (from 2 to 4/8 M citric) both the outer and axial portions of the spicule vanish within 15 minutes. The axial filament may even be de- stroyed prior to the siliceous cylinder. This is illustrated by a comparison of Figure 2 (HF alone) and Figure 3 (HF and citric). The siliceous outer portion of the spicules is at about the same stage of digestion. Electron microscopy of u'holc spicules With the rotary shadow technique it was possible to study the axial filament from a spicnle that had been partially removed, and then to remove the HF- sensitive material completely and study the same region again by examining the carbon replica made during the rotary shadowing. Figure 5 shows a partially removed spicule with a filament extending from the end. The eccentric position of the filament will be understood after comparison with Figure 6, which is a replica of the same spicule seen in Figure 5 after the spicule was completely re- moved. The internal relationship of the filament and spicule is revealed. The removal of siliceous material by HF occurs most rapidly in the interior of the spicule, producing a conical etch pit.


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In the experiment the level of hatching in the CO 2 control was significantly greater than zero (16/0 per cent). This background level was elimi- nated in subsequent experiments by restricting the duration of incubation in nitrogen. Whatever the function of CO, in the dark, the presence of CO 2 restricts the light requirement to a maximum of four hours. A working hypothesis of activation is that the embryos may require stimula- tion at two separate inductive phases of a daily cycle as shown in earlier experi- ments (see above). One of the phases has an absolute requirement for light. The second phase might be inducible with light or a substitute such as an elevated tension of CO 2. Results of the first experiment with CO 2 showed that CO 2 renders the embryo photo-sensitive. That CO 2 later substituted for a second pulse of light is an assumption consistent with the dual role of CO 2 as shown by Sommer- ville (1964) and consistent with the observation that CO 2 suppresses a dark (short-day) reaction (Barnett and Lilly, 1955). Thus it may be proposed that CO 2 may have two roles in the activation of the Daphnia embryo: to break photo- refractoriness and to substitute for light at one of two photo-inducible phases. Results supported the hypothesis that CO 2 substitutes for light at one of two inductive phases of a daily cycle, although in a way more striking than anticipated. Ten groups of embryos in triplicate were given an elevated level of CO 2 under safelight.

The buzz bait is a classic attention getter. And, it works when other lures fail to convince the big fish to bite. The bait rises to the surface and its blade slaps the water as it is reeled, attracting fish in the surrounding area.


The late summer looks a lot like a reverse version of spring to summer. There’s just no spawning involved, so feeding will be a higher priority over a longer period.

At ecdysis, major changes in the cuticle in effect lower the defenses of the animal. Tolerance ranges based on studies of acute salinity effects tend to be broader than the actual tolerance range. To understand the effect of salinity on distribution, one must know the true tolerance range based on studies of chronic effects of salinity. Of the pagurid species studied previously, Pagurus sainuelis was observed to develop to Zoea IV only from 22/5 to 35% c, and to the megalopa only at 29%o. No juveniles were obtained in salinity tolerance experiments because the tempera- ture exceeded the lethal limit late in the experiment (Coffin, 1958). Pag tints bernhardus developed completely to the juvenile only at 30 and 35%. A small percentage of megalopae were obtained at 25% but this result was not duplicated in another experiment (Bookhout, 1964). Pagurus longlcarpus developed over a much wider salinity range than either Pagurus species mentioned above. Of the three species, this is the only one penetrating estuaries to a significant extent. The optimal salinity range is broad, at least from 18 to 30/5% and probably above.


/apophysis/Apophysis 2.09/Apophysis-2.09-src.7z: released on 2009-09-10 20:35:28 UTC

Chelicera furrow with 3/3 teeth on right chelicera, and 3/4 on the left. Some somatic characters and palp as in Figs 3B–E.

As species like Bluegill and Shad move out of the deep water and head for more tolerable temps in cooling shallow water; bass will follow suit. They also know that winter is coming so they’ll need to fatten up for the long haul.


Prosoma light reddish brown, legs and opisthosoma pale yellow-brown. Body covered with feathery and scale-like hairs with abundant short setae over prosoma and legs, less abundant over opisthosoma.

Clinical Oral Anatomy .pdf

The complexity and functional significance of the appendix in the bivalve stomach ranges from a rudimentary, static groove in M. edulis (Reid, 1965) to the large food storage pouch found in the wood-boring Teredinidae (Purchon, 1968). Yonge (1949) submits that the appendix or antero-dorsal caecum in tellinids functions as both a storage cavity for sand grains to aid in trituration of food material, and a relief valve for excess food-mucus strings accumulating around the head of the crystalline style. The rejectory currents of the appendix of A. falcata precludes its functioning in a storage capacity. Moreover, I was never able to observe the overt abstraction of mudstone particles in any portion of the stomach. The appendix of A. falcata functions solely as a relief mechanism, and, instead of temporarily storing the bolus material pressed into it, the ciliary currents of the appendix convey this material to the intestinal groove, where it is subsequently removed from the stomach. The obvious advantage of the appendix to A. falcata is that the presence of a relief mechanism in the stomach prevents overeating and thus maintains the proper volume for optimum mixing of food with gastric juices. CILIARY CURRENTS OF ADULA FALCATA 43 The crystalline style from specimens of A. falcata maintained in aquaria often contained bits and pieces of food matter. Morton (1952) suggests that this is a common occurrence which is advantageous to the style bearer in that it permits recovery and digestion of food matter which would otherwise be lost as faeces. Nelson (1918) found similar structures in the styles of Anodonta grandis and Modiolns inodiolus. Nelson's explanation for this phenomenon was that, during the formation of the crystalline style, a clear mucus stream is secreted by the walls of the intestine and picked up by the ciliated surfaces of the typhlo- soles in the mid-gut.


Choosing the Best Striped Bass Lures

The segmented front section provides a natural look, while the ribbon tail gives the Power Worm a natural motion when pulled through the water. No need for a beginner to twitch and time pulls; the Power Worm simplifies the presentation. In skilled hands, though, these things come to life.

Generally speaking, bass strike when hungry. But they will also strike in anger or when startled. So in the depth of summer heat you’ll want to either appear out of nowhere and cause a commotion or look so good they can’t pass up the opportunity.


Bergh (1885) recorded the morphology of C. stiinpsoni based on a preserved specimen collected in Nova Scotia and sent to him by Verrill. Krause (1892) and Knipowitsch (1902) found C. stimpsoni in Northern Europe and the latter described a new variety based on radular variation. In October, 1968 and 1969 a large number of Coryphella stimpsoni were en- countered moving over mud flats in what appeared to be a mass migration at the Moosehorn Wildlife Refuge, Edmunds, Maine. The nudibranchs were taken to the Northeastern University Marine Science Institute where further observations were made which are reported here. MATERIALS AND METHODS Observations and measurements were made on living animals whenever possible. Radular mounts were prepared utilizing Turtox CMCS and Gomori trichrome stain; the latter one clearly differentiated the teeth from the radular membranes. At the Marine Science Institute, the specimens were maintained in plexiglass tanks. Egg masses were isolated in glass dishes on the water table. Newly hatched specimens were relaxed in 5% M g Cl 2, fixed in Hollande's fluid, sectioned and stained. Adult specimens were relaxed in 8% M g CL, fixed in Hollande's fluid and W c /c formalin.

After this central integration, signals flow from the brain to the corpora cardiaca via the two pairs of nerves which interconnect them. On the basis of present knowledge we cannot say whether these signals are nerve impulses or neurosecretory agents. The signals in question converge on the intrinsic cells of the corpora cardiaca to provoke the release from these cells of a certain hormone. In the case of cockroaches, Milburn and Roeder (1962) have extracted from the corpora cardiaca a substance which causes rhythmic discharge in the phallic nerve when applied to the abdominal ganglia. Evidently, in the virgin moths an analogous factor is secreted by the intrinsic cells of the corpora cardiaca to promote the motor acts which comprise the calling behavior. A similar type of mechanism involved in oviposition behavior will be examined in the further detail in the following communication (Truman and Riddiford, 1971). Supported by NSF grants GB-7966 (LMR) and GB-7963 (CMW) and by the Rockefeller Foundation. We wish to thank Dr. James Truman for prepara- tion of the figures and for a critical reading of the manuscript. SUMMARY 1. In virgin female silkmoths the protrusion of the genitalia or "calling" behavior signals sex pheromone release. The wild Polyphemus and Cecropia silkmoths "call" in response to specific environmental cues which are chemical and photoperiodic respectively.